# Quantum orientations in the plane: Malus’ law (1808) and Stokes parameters (1852) for polarisation of light viewed as a quantum measurement

Two aspects of Positive Operator Valued Measures (POVM) on the Euclidean plane (a basic Hilbert space!) are presented, namely their status as quantum observables and their role as quantizers in the integral quantization procedure. The compatibility of POVMs in the ensuing quantum formalism is discussed, and a Naimark dilation is found for the quantum operators. The relation with Toeplitz quantization is explained. Within this framework, we describe the linear polarization of the light with the use of Stokes parameters and its interaction with a polariser as a quantum measurement (Malus’ law).